This is the recipe we use at our cafes. To demonstrate, we're using a common home machine by Breville, Dual Boiler.

Consistency of home coffee machines is getting better, and better, so you shouldn't see too much difference between a Flat White at Carlton, or in your home.


The Espresso Machine
Is fundamentally a water delivery system. A good machine delivers water at a stable pressure and temperature.

The Grinder
Arguably the most important aspect of brewing espresso. The goal is to create the right grind size in order to extract   enough out of the coffee without extracting the undesirable flavour compounds. The better the grinder, the more uniform the particles = more consistent brewing and the ability to extract more or the good stuff without getting more of the bad stuff.

Houses the basket that holds your prepared coffee puck ready for extraction.

These come in various sizes to accommodate the desired coffee dose and to allow water to pass evenly through a bed of coffee.

Used to compress ground coffee evenly for a quality extraction.

Should be to the gram. Used to weigh the dose and shot weight to achieve consistent results.

Milk Jugs
400ml for one / 600ml for two. The aim is to steam the exact amount of milk you require. Keep it fresh and clean!

Optional. It is used to monitor milk temperature - 62 to 65 degrees.


18G BASKET | cup size 90-180mL
DOSE: 19g
YIELD: 40-45g
BREW TIME: 28-34 sec
TEMP: 95c

20G BASKET | cup size 190-250mL
DOSE: 21g
YIELD: 45-48g
BREW TIME: 28-34 sec
TEMP: 95c



1. Remove empty portafilter (PF), wipe basket clean and dry.

2. Purge group head for 3 seconds to flush out dirty water from previous extraction

3. Take PF on scales (or tare a paper cup on scales, if your PF doesn’t fit).

4. Grind coffee into PF or cup. Weigh on scales to ensure correct dose, adjusting as necessary


5. Distribute coffee evenly in the basket by gently tapping the side of the PF with the palm of your hand, so the coffee grounds are of equal depth around the basket. (If you use a paper cup, pour in slowly to ensure no grounds are spilt before tapping).

6. Tamper on the bed of coffee and apply firm pressure (~20kg), so the tamper sinks into the basket creating a flat, smooth surface of coffee grounds. Wipe rim of basket of any loose grounds.

7. Gently insert the PF into group head, ensuring a tight seal.


8. Place cup on scales, tare scales and position the cip and scales on the drip tray underneath the spouts of PF.

9. Start brew and timer simultaneously. Espresso should start to flow between 6 and 9 seconds after the start of the shot.

10. When the scales read 5g less than the desired shot weight, stop the brew or use programmed volumetric button.

11. Take note of your shot time and weight.


1. Ensure jug and cloth are clean. Fill jug with desired amount of fresh cold milk.

2. Purge any condensed water from the steam wand.

3. Place steam nozzle just under the surface of the milk, just off-centre in the jug.

4. Turn on steam to full (1 full turn) and gently lower the jug until you hear a gentle scratching sound. This indicates that the steam is pulling air into the milk. The longer you hear that noise the more foam you will create. This is called “stretching the milk.”

5. You want to have all the air introduced before the milk warms up to 35 degrees or just warm to touch.
6. You want to have all the air introduced before the milk warms up to 35 degrees or just warm to touch.

7. Raise the jug and drop the steam tip under the surface of the milk and maintain the spinning until your thermometer reads 55 degrees or it’s just too hot to keep your hand on the jug. Turn off steam. The thermometer should stabilise at your desired temp (62-65 degrees).

8. For HOT coffees wait a few extra seconds to heat the milk to 65-68’C

9. Wipe and purge the steam wand.